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Chapter 2. Methodology

In this chapter, the methods used to study the effects of water scarcity on the economic, industrial and other sectors of Ethiopia are studied. The academic implications and sphere of the possible use of the obtained data are represented.

2.1. Academic implications

The study of water scarcity is important not only in relation to the African countries, but for the global discussions of the water resource allocation. Today the world faces the problem of climate change and many of its resource become scarce. Water that is extremely needed for humans to live belongs to the endangered resources. In some regions, people already do not have access to enough quantity of drinking water and proper sanitation. The results of the paper can be implied for such purposes:

– The information about global issues of water supply can be used to study the problem of allocation of the water resources around the world.

– The data and statistics about Ethiopia’s water scarcity and sanitation can be useful to investigate the water provision in the African regions and analysis of the policies implemented by the government to ensure access of the local communities to enough sources of water.

– The study of the effects of water scarcity on the development of Ethiopia’s national economy, its industry and agriculture can be applied for tracking the connection between scarcity of some resources on the growth of the country and its economic and political weight.

2.2. Used methods

The investigation is based on the use of the set of primary and secondary methods which are directed to highlight the consequences of water scarcity in Ethiopia from the different aspects, including economy, social sector, industries etc.

The primary methods of the study include the conduction of the quantitative analysis. In order to implement this method it is necessary to use the data collection which suggests the search and selection of the information about Ethiopia’s water resources, their use and scarcity etc. The collection of the data is performed from the different sources. In particular, the author uses the official and statistical websites relating to Ethiopia’s economy, policy and social integration in terms of solving the problem of proper allocation of the water resources across the country and water scarcity. The investigation includes the use of the general scientific methods such as induction, deduction, analysis, explanation, synthesis etc. The use of these methods contribute to the study of water scarcity impact on Ethiopia’s GDP, level of unemployment, agricultural growth, level of the industrial development etc.

For the purposes of the economic analysis, the regression method will be used. The regression analysis is executed with accounting the regional and zonal distribution of the water resources. It is helpful in order to find out the connection between the water use in the country and access of the population to the proper sanitation services and effects on the social wellbeing of Ethiopia’s urban and rural population. The positive correlation is detected between the improvements of the Ethiopian households’ access to the drinking water and sanitation. The Ethiopian households’ experiencing access to clean water gets the reduction of the illnesses that leads to the increase of the productive employment. The regression analysis provides some data about the significant economic benefits to the improvements through the provision of the better access to the drinking water in all regions of the country. However, the data collected to perform this study are characterized by the number of limitations. They include the fact that the individual households cannot be tracked over time and the information about Ethiopian households’ incomes allocated on time on the different activities is not available. The evident economic benefits from the increase of proper access to water and sanitation become the result of inadequacy of the data collected in the course of survey as a reflection of the significant lack of the benefits for economy, society, industries etc. The analysis of the study is based on using the data between 1999-2010 and 2011-2019 collected from the Welfare Monitoring Surveys and other statistical sources of the information like Central Statistics Agency in Ethiopia. The analysis of 1999-2010 covers totally 25.917 urban and rural households, and 2011-2019 survey covers about 36.353 urban and rural households. In the course of survey, the data collected about the Ethiopian households’ access to the drinking water and basic services of sanitation. These surveys ensure the set of the values concerning the household welfare that includes the health, nutrition, education and other factors which contribute to the living standards.

In order to test the hypotheses of the paper, the major approach for estimation of the fixed effects of regression form will be used. The formula is as follows:

where  shows the change in each variable within the particular period of time;  means the income of each Ethiopian household;  represents the enrolment in education of children in every household;  reflects the distance of each household to the nearest source of the water across the country;  means the certain measure of the quality of the drinking water source; means the particular measure of the sanitation source quality; represents the other changes in the Ethiopian household incomes over the certain period of time;  reflects all other impacts on the changes in the school enrolment over time.

The benefit of using the regression method lies in its effectiveness for the control of any time-invariant values which can cause the spurious relationship between the Ethiopian households’ incomes and school enrolment, and distance of the population to water sources and proper sanitation. We are limited in opportunities to estimate the standard fixed effects of the regression methods at the level of households since the data collected within 1999-2010 and 2011-2019 surveys do not form the panel. Accordingly, they do not provide the required information on the same households in each year and they are varied annually. However, we can estimate and compare two sets of the regression data. The first represent the adapted fixed effect regression on the level of household; and the second is fixed effect regression on the level of area. The fixed effect regression on the level of household also uses the information relating to the sourcing of drinking water and proper sanitation simultaneously at the time of survey and previously one year. In each situation, these data are reflected in the terms of categories, such as wells, rivers etc., which are divided into the low and high quality. It includes as follows: (1) high-quality water from the tap protected spring, rivers, wells etc.; (2) water source of low quality including unprotected springs and wells, rain or river water; (3) sanitation source of high quality including shared or private toilets, and pit latrine; (4) sanitation source of low quality which includes the forests, fields, households’ utensils. Taking into account these definitions, we can build the variables reflecting whether the Ethiopian households’ sources to the drinking water and sanitation were improved or, on the contrary, deteriorated over the previous year. These variables ensure the proxy values for such variables as  and in the equation 1. However, neither survey provides information on the Ethiopian households’ distance from the nearest source of water at the time of survey and one year previously. This means that we are not capable to measure the variable  in the equation 1. Instead, it becomes the part of the residual term . We include several set of control variables in the regression. The first set of variables includes the household shock variables, where every value reflects whether the household has experienced a certain adverse event during the past 12 months, including illnesses of the Ethiopian household members, deaths among population, losses of jobs, crop damage, food shortage, loss or death of livestock, drought, price shock etc. The second variable represents the set of the household livelihood variables which indicate the main source of incomes got by each Ethiopian household. The individual variable is included for sixteen different sources, which cover such variables as the agricultural and industrial enterprises, wages, gifts and remittances, and others. The third variable includes the data for each district which are included in order to capture the determinants of the Ethiopian households in relation to food and total status of welfare. These determinants are common for the geographic districts, e.g. such as the weather conditions.

The secondary methods of the study include the use of the scientific articles, academic publications, Internet and other sources which are dedicated to the investigation of Ethiopia’s water shortage and its uneven distribution across different regions of the country. The works especially important for the study includes as follows: Chidlow (2000), Hertel and Liu (2016), Guppy and Anderson (2017), Sharma and Bereket (2008), Verma (2020) etc.

Conclusions to Chapter 2

Having summarized the above-said, the methods used in the paper will contribute to the multi-aspect study of the Ethiopian water scarcity. Due to the data collection and regression analysis, the results obtained in the course of the study will be qualitative and significant in terms of studying the impact of water scarcity on the economic, social, and other factors of Ethiopia’s and global growth.

Chapter 3: Analytical part

In this chapter the economic effects of water scarcity in Ethiopia are studied. The issues of the water scarcity impact on the growth of agriculture and industries are investigated. The attention is paid to the research of the potential risks of water scarcity for the total socio-economic wellbeing in Ethiopia. The author develops the recommendations about the ways to improve the problem of water scarcity in Ethiopia. 

3.1. Effect of water scarcity on Ethiopia’s national economy

In Ethiopia, the economic development depends on many variables, including the development of industry, commerce, agriculture etc. Rainfalls and access to the water resources belong to highly variable value. In the country, most of the food crops both for the domestic consumption and for export are produced by the rain-fed agriculture. The industrial water-dependent crops contribute about 85% to the export earnings. The significant share of incomes to the national economy is generated from the electricity sector, but water is extremely vital for it. Hydropower plants are responsible for about 90% of the country’s electrical provision. As claimed by Taye & Dyer, the Ethiopian economic growth is vulnerable to the climate and water-related shocks (Taye & Dyer, 2019). The scholars emphasize that even insignificant drop in rainfall, for example, by 5% can cause 10% decrease of the industrial and agricultural productivity of the country and reduce its GDP. However, it should be noted that compared with the previous years, there is the tendency to the GDP growth in Ethiopia compared with 1999. The positive dynamics of GDP changes shows that the company’s efforts on strengthening the economy despite the problems with water scarcity are successful and the improvement is observed already during the past fifteen years (Fig. 3.1.1):

Fig. 3.1.1. Dynamics of GDP changes in Ethiopia since 1999 to 2019 yy.
*composed by the author based on the data of FRED (FRED(a))

According to the data of the National Bank of Ethiopia claim that the industry, service sector, and agriculture are the main segments which contribute to the country’s GDP. Their contribution constituted 27%, 39% and 35% respectively in 2018. The share of the agriculture contribution into Ethiopia’s GDP has dropped by over 25% within 2005 to 2018. Compared with it, the service sector has grown by approximately 27% within the same period. The industry sector of the country covers mostly the railways, roads, industrial parks etc. The service sector includes the segment of transport services, communication, restaurant and hotel businesses, and other organizations engaged in the wholesale and retail trade. The total volumes of export to Ethiopia and imports from Ethiopia during the past decade were as follows (Table 3.1.1):

Table 3.1.1

Exports to and imports from Ethiopia from 2009 to 2018, $

YearExportsChange, %ImportsChange, %
20187624.331,35314.86 %19 928.882,5463.20%
20176637.865,07712.40 %19 310.435,700-3.43%
20165905.571,808-1.69 %19 996.795,3520.68%
20156007.196,233-5.93 %19 860.793,1329.10%
20146385.691,6874.40 %18 203.817,59627.73%
20136116.476,0232.03 %14 251.242,0980.86%
20125.994.928,7052.80 %14 129.937,70020.21%
20115.831.538,47225.57 %11 754.566,21318.56%
20104.644.218,34235.40 %9 914.637,3889.64%
20099042.846,295-5,78%9 042.846,295-5.78%
20089597.929,16139,01%9 597.929,16139.01
*composed by the author based on the data of Knoema (Knoema(a), 2020; Knoema(b), 2020).

Ethiopia is landlocked and almost all of its imports and exports go through the port of Djibouti. New roads and railways linking Ethiopia with neighboring countries are helping to transform it into a new economic center for the region. Ethiopia is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The major destinations of Ethiopia’s export include Asia (39.8%), Europe (28.7%), and Africa (20.9%). In 2018 the leading export market for the Ethiopian products and services was the United States (U.S. Embassies, 2019). The most exported products which manufacture is strongly dependent on the water use include such products as tea, coffee and spices ($843.6 mln), oil seeds ($483.5 mln), vegetables and ($69.3 mln), live trees, cut flowers and plants ($276 mln) in the agricultural sector; and knit or crochet clothing and accessories ($168.1 mln), not knitted and not crochet clothing and accessories ($139.3 mln), machinery ($131.5 mln), gems and precious metals ($79.9 mln), electrical machinery and equipment ($48.9 mln), and raw hides, leather etc. ($69.2 mln). In 2018, for example, the export of vegetables was negatively affected by the drop of production by 53.1% because of the severe droughts in the country; as a result it did not achieve the previous years’ level of external sales (U.S. Embassies, 2019). Thus, as argued by Workman, Ethiopia’s total share of export represents about 1.1% of the overall GDP in 2019 (Workman, 2020).

The influence of water scarcity on Ethiopia’s economy is reflected in the low productive employment. Most people living there have to apply a lot of efforts to get the drinking water, and they use lesser efforts to their jobs. The productive employment of the population is as follows (Table 3.1.2):

Table 3.1.2

Productive employment of Ethiopia’s population, % members 10 years and above

Region1999-20102011-2019Proportional test P > |z|
Tigray51.935.20.0000
Afar60.853.10.0000
Amhara59.661.30.0102
Oromia56.660.40.0000
Somali54.947.60.0000
Benishangul59.367.50.0000
SNNPR62.760.80.0021
Gambela47.246.10.0019
Harari47.248.30.5241
Addis Ababa46.237.20.0000
Dire Dawa57.349.70.000
*composed by the author based on Welfare Monitoring Surveys (Welfare Monitoring Survey).

Since 2011, Ethiopia has been building the dam, also known as The Grand Renaissance Dam. It is a mega-project of over $3.5 billion, but it fits in with the towering ambitions of the African country. Ethiopia wants that the agriculture and electricity become Africa’s largest energy exporter thanks to the dam. With the water from the Nile stored in the reservoir behind the dam, Ethiopia could certainly supply three million households with electricity. The country can achieve this enormously economically. According to Ethiopia, the water is temporarily stored and eventually flows back into the Nile, but Egypt mistrusts this. According to the Egyptians, there are too many risks to agriculture and the country’s electricity and water supply. In 2010, Egypt and Sudan were already deliberating to bomb the dam if necessary, and military intervention is not ruled out by Egypt. Despite all the threats, Ethiopia has continued to build the dam and wants to use it in future. The Ethiopian government states that Egypt cannot maintain its grip on the waters of the Nile and says that nothing can stand in the way of its use and thus the economic development of the country (Nieuws, 2019, pp. 1-2).

It has hardly rained in Ethiopia since March 2015. This is caused by the weather phenomenon “El Niño”. The current El Niño is one of the worst since the beginning of the survey. El Niño is disrupting weather patterns worldwide, especially in terms of rainfall. The consequences include droughts in the Amazon region, extreme rainfalls and floods in Kenya and also the current droughts in Ethiopia. The FAO estimates that 10.2 million Ethiopians through El Niño suffer from food insecurity. The UN famine warning system states that this number could increase to 18 million by the end of 2016. Ethiopia today is better prepared for such a situation than it has been in recent decades. In past years, the Ethiopian government has spent 70% of its public finances on agriculture. As a result, poverty in the country has decreased by 33% since 2000. In addition, over the last ten years, the road network has doubled in size, giving farmers better access to markets and helpers connect faster to remote villages. However, the current drought could potentially undo these positive developments. Not the whole country has been affected, but the large areas. The region around Lake Ziway in the Ethiopian Great Rift Valley, where the world’s largest flower nursery is located, does not belong to those areas. Finally, poverty and population growth are strengthening factors for an ever-increasing destruction of natural resources and the economy of the country. At the same time, the existing water and economy related infrastructure is inadequate or in poor condition, such as wells, pipelines, pipes, production facilities, water treatment plants and the like. As a result, only a quarter of the population has access to clean drinking water, one of the lowest percentages in the world. An improvement of this situation can only be achieved through an environmentally friendly production method that in particular does not further affect the soil. The people must, of course, want and accept this. The national policies, legislation, knowledge formation and educational measures must stimulate this; otherwise there is no chance of a turnaround. At the same time, there is an urgent need to improve access to water for the rural population (Fairtrade, 2016, pp. 1-2).

The Ethiopian economy is experiencing high growth rates every year. The country is known for its stable political situation and determined leadership. That attracts investments that stimulate growth and bring about social development. Humanitarian interventions should safeguard these development investments. It is therefore necessary to respond in a timely manner to a naked crisis, so that vulnerable households do not deplete their scarce food first before they are helped. Early warning and timely action can prevent people from becoming structurally dependent on aid. Despite strong growth, Ethiopia remains one of the world’s largest recipient countries. There is a significant potential in bridging the gap between development and humanitarian aid, but practice remains lacking. Development interventions often focus on the most accessible groups, not the most vulnerable. As a result, the synergy with humanitarian interventions leaves much to be desired (Hiergens, 2016, p. 3).

Having summarized the above-said, the major impact on Ethiopia’s economy is connected with the drop of sales and exports among the industries, service segments and others which are extremely dependent on the water use. The necessity of the population to get drinking water has the negative effect on the country.

3.2. Impact of water scarcity on Ethiopia’s agriculture

Ethiopia evokes the image of drought and hunger in many people. Indeed, in a small part of the country there is a structural drought and on average between five and eight million people are starving. Yet most of the land is fertile, with sufficient water, sunlight and moderate temperatures. The country is suitable for the production of vegetables, fruit, cereals, flowers and for example milk and meat due to the good climatic conditions (Bosmans, 2019, p. 1).

Agriculture in Ethiopia represents the main livelihood. Approximately 78% of the Ethiopian households have about one member of the family which is engaged in the agricultural activity. Agriculture brings the country about 42 of the GDP and forms the significant share of its export. The dependence of the Ethiopian economy on the agriculture increased the necessity to support the country’s continuing growth in relation to the water security. The Ethiopian agricultural sector is represented mainly by the small-scale famers. They totally cultivate less than two hectares per one household and are responsible for about 95% of the agricultural output. Historically, the variability of rainfalls and droughts in the country was the major reason of the crop failure, and deaths of the livestock. For example, 10% rise of the crop loss was connected with 3% drop of the households’ consumption. Most people in Ethiopia, especially living in the rural settlements rely on the rain-fed agriculture as the source of their constant incomes, and food provision. Therefore, the rainfall and drought variability serves as the important factor that can push the Ethiopian farmers into the state of poverty. For example, in 2002 the droughts in the country were extremely severe and 13.2 mln farmers were affected by the crop loss. In this period the poverty rate in Ethiopia has raised from 30% to 52% (Reach, 2015, p. 7).

The urbanization leads to the increase of water demand among the population. The Ethiopians suffer from the obvious reduction of the water resources as a result of the humans’ effects. The water in Ethiopia is wasted in agriculture. Mostly, it is used for the irrigation of the agricultural lands. The irrigated lands of the country constitute about 205.400 ha, or 4.7% of the irrigable area. Many agricultural farms in Ethiopia are located along the downstream or middle of the basic (Adeba, Kansal, & Sen, 2015, p. 2).

The current Ethiopian government is implementing economic reforms, giving priority to the agricultural sector. According to the agricultural council Niek Bosmans, Ethiopia can, with the help of Dutch investments, eventually become the region’s food barn (Bosmans, 2019, p. 2). There has been little rain in Ethiopia over the past years, and El Niño has also been added. Humans are the victims of the worst drought in 50 years. Cows and goats die and crops are lost. About 80% of the population is dependent on the agriculture, which means that 10.2 million people need food aid (Rode Kruis, 2016).

In 2016 approximately 15% of Ethiopia’s lands were used for the production of the main crops. Mostly they are represented by the cereals, oil seeds, pulses, roots and tubers, coffee and vegetables. The grain crops including the cereals, oil seeds and pulses are cultivated on 12.5 MHa and produce about 26.7 mln metric tons of the agricultural products. Cereals refer to the most important field crops among the Ethiopians. Since 1999 to 2016 the areas cover the cereal crops represented below (Table 3.2.1):

Table 3.2.1

The area coverage of the cereal crops in Ethiopia

 YearTefWheatMaizeSorghumBarleyOther cerealsTotal
19991.760.751.120.950.730.295.6
2000-20092.171.271.591.350.960.387.72
2012-20132.731.632.011.711.020.089.6
2015-20192.871.662.111.850.940.079.97
*composed by the author based on the data of Fantaye (Fantaye, 2018).

According to the World Bank, the major economic incomes of Ethiopia come from the agricultural sector. It contributes about 41% of the total GDP. However, the problem is that the majority of its agriculture is rain-fed. It employs about 80% of the country’s population. In the times of droughts, the workers engaged in the agricultural sector remain without jobs that lead to the poverty of the population. In some areas where rainfalls are absent during several years, the trade in agricultural products suffer greatly. The population of the country also faces such awful consequence as the famine. The country usually receives as high as 2500 mm rainfall in the Southern-Western part and less than 200 mm in the Southern Easter region. The majority of water for the agricultural purposes is get by the country during Belg and Kiremt seasons, but the amount of the precipitation and their season character differs dependently from place to place. For example, Kiremt region in Ethiopia today does not have heavy rains longer as it was before, and moderate rainfalls are observed during Belf season (Sima & Restiani, 2017, p. 1).

3.3. Influence of water scarcity on Ethiopia’s industries

The big concern of Ethiopia is pollution of water caused by the manufacturing plants. Textile and garment manufacturing plants which are wide-spread in the country generate the biggest threat for water pollution, especially liquid wastes. The textile and garment manufacturing plants usually do not have any effluent treatment devices to provide the waste disposal processes. As a result, the wastes are disposed directly to the environment around, including the rivers. Although Ethiopia has legal regulations which protect the environment from the negative impacts of the industrial waste, the lack of real enforcement of these regulations and poor supervision of the waste control leads to the worsening of the water pollution problem in the country (Sima & Restiani, 2017, p. 2). Water pollution aggravates the risk of water shortage. The Ethiopian industries in the major cities of the country are located in the basin and serve as the sources of the water pollution. Toxic metals which appear as a result of manufacturing activities are the main sources of the pollution. Sugarcane industry in the county is the big source of pollution because its wastewaters contain high concentration of the effluents (Adeba, Kansal, & Sen, 2015, p. 71). Although the consumption of water in the industry is affected by water shortage, as argued by Sima and Restiani, the water use in the industrial sector in Ethiopia is lesser than in the other economic segments of the country. However, recently the industrial sector of Ethiopia developed substantially. Due to the growth of the industrial sector, the consumption of water and water wastes increased (Sima & Restiani, 2017, p. 2). The size of the waste water treatment plants varies at the different plants (Table 3.3.1):

Table 3.3.1

Size of the waste water treatment plant

Industrial plantDomestic (m3 /day)Industrial (m3 /day)Waste Water Treatment Plant Technology
Bole Lemi – I1.500Advanced Conventional
Bole Lemi – II3.00014.000Advanced Conventional
Mekelle2.5003.000Advanced Conventional
Hawassa3.0008.000Zero Liquid Discharge
Adama3.0008.000Zero Liquid Discharge
Dire Dawa2.0004.000Zero Liquid Discharge
Kilinto1.00013.000Zero Liquid Discharge
Kombolcha2.5001.500Advanced Conventional
Jimma1.5001.000Advanced Conventional
Bahir Dar1.5001.000Advanced Conventional
Debre Birhan2.0001.500Advanced Conventional
*composed by the author based on the data of GBN (GBN, 2020, p. 7).

The industrial pollution of water increases the problem of water scarcity in the country. The industrial pollutions are mostly concentrated in the city of Addis Ababa where the majority of the industries are located. The main industries which generate the water pollution in Ethiopia includes food and beverage, tanneries, textile, leather factories, wood, metallic and non-metallic mineral products. Among the industries, approximately 90% of them discharge their wastes into the environment without any treatment. The major categories of water pollutants from the industries are as follows (Table 3.3.2):

Table 3.3.2

Major categories of water pollutants from the Ethiopian industries

CategoryExamplesSources
A. Causes health problems
1. Infectious agentsBacteria, viruses, parasitesHuman and animal excreta
2. Organic chemicalsPesticides, plastics, detergents, oil, and gasolineIndustrial, household, and farm use
3. Inorganic chemicalsAcids, caustics, salts, metalsIndustrial effluents, household cleansers, surface runoff
4. Radioactive materialsUranium, thorium, cesium, iodine, radonMining and processing of ores, power plants, weapons production, natural sources
B. Causes ecosystem disruption
1. SedimentSoil, siltLand erosion
2. Plant nutrientsNitrates, phosphates, ammoniumAgricultural and urban fertilizers, sewage, manure
3. Oxygen-demanding wastesAnimal manure and plant residuesSewage, agricultural runoff, paper mills, food processing
4. ThermalHeatPower plants, industrial cooling
*composed by the author based on the data of Guta (Guta, 2015, p. 18).

The Ethiopian industries discharge the by-product waste into the rivers that leads to the aggravation of the water shortage. However, there are no any restrictions on the industrial plants that discharge their wastewater into the environment and rivers. Only few industries in Ethiopia have the water treatment facilities.

3.4. Potential risks of water scarcity for Ethiopia’s social-economic well-being

The water scarcity bears a lot of social-economic risks for the well-being of the Ethiopians. The water scarcity is closely connected with the poverty in all regions of the country. It should be noted that since 2000 the government of Ethiopia could decrease the poverty from 44% to 30% across all regions of the country. Ethiopia could double the number of people provided with the piped water. According to Reach, it contributed to the reduction of the uneducated
people (Reach, 2015, p. 13). The country’s GDP is dependent on the annual rainfalls because the main incomes are generated from the agriculture. As a result, 82% of the job places are created by the agricultural farms. Since 2008 the employment rate among the Ethiopians decreased due to the government’s efforts to create more jobs in the agricultural, industrial and other sectors (Fig. 3.4.1):

Fig. 3.4.1. Rate of employment in Ethiopia from 1999 to 2019 yy.
*composed by the author based on the data of FRED (FRED(b)).
.

Pollution of the water by the industries leads to the increase of the households’ expenditures for the obtainment and distribution of water that effects on the local population which has low incomes. The Ethiopians who are incapable to pay for the fresh water are forced to drink the polluted water and it causes the problems with the health care in the country. Approximately 70% of the operation costs are required to ensure the access to people in all regions of the country to the municipal water and in order to remove the pollutants discharged by the industries and urbanization (Reach, 2015, p. 13). The welfare of the Ethiopians depends on rainy or dry season, because the population especially in rural places is engaged mostly in the rain-fed agriculture (Table 3.4.1):

Table 3.4.1

Welfare/water variable in Ethiopia

Welfare variable/Water variableFood RainyOverall RainyFood DryOverall Dry
Improvement, water0.213** 0.000.140* 0.020.229** 0.000.133* 0.03
Deterioration, water0.103 0.240.196 0.030.091 0.360.187 0.07
Improvement, sanitation0.036 0.370.069 0.070.032 0.420.067 0.08
Deterioration, sanitation0.055 0.480.034 0.660.054 0.480.033 0.66
Notes: p-values are shown beneath each coefficient; * indicates coefficient is statistically significant at the 5% level; ** indicates coefficient is statistically significant at the 1% level.*composed by the author based on Welfare Monitoring Surveys (Welfare Monitoring Survey).

The sources of the drinking water in the dry and wet seasons in the different regions of Ethiopia include tap water, wells, lakes, rivers and others (Table 3.4.2; Table 3.4.3):

Table 3.4.2

Sources of drinking water in the dry season, % of households

Region1999-20102012-2019
Tap in householdTap in compound, privateTap in compound, sharedTap outside compoundProtected well/ springUnprotected well/springRiver, lake, pondTap in householdTap in compound, privateTap in compound, sharedTap outside compoundProtected well/ springUnprotected well/ springRiver, lake, pond
Tigray0.13.01.021.914.721.138.21.97.38.322.616.921.921.1
Afar0.24.21.120.715.722.435.71.910.27.930.04.412.832.8
Amhara0.22.81.020.914.420.440.31.56.16.517. 710.634.523.1
Oromia0.12.91.120.214.621.339.91.16.04.820.49.832.525.4
Somali0.35.21.523.914.220.234.60.73.05.230.37.021.532.3
Benshangul0.33.01.219.913.920.541.20.71.41.413.315.720.247.3
SNNPR0.12.00.919.714.821.840.70.62.52.315.612.535.730.9
Gambela0.67.21.224.913.717.934.50.52.72.416.113.0236.432.5
Harari0.27.81.323.414.219.533.60.97.015.916.430.423.95.5
Dire Dawa0.56.21.624.614.118.534.51.58.210.653.313.712.30.4
Addis Ababa0.24.51.425.115.921.031.94.333.823.930.52.73.71.2
(Pearson chi = 208.3569; Pr = 0.000).
*composed by the author based on Welfare Monitoring Surveys (Welfare Monitoring Survey).

Table 3.4.3

Sources of drinking water in the wet season, % of households

Region1999-2010 2012-2019
Tap in householdTap in compound, privateTap in compound, sharedTap outside compoundProtected well/ springUnprotected well/springRain waterRiver, lake, pondTap in householdTap in compound, privateTap in compound, sharedTap outside compoundProtected well/ springUnprotected well/ springRain waterRiver, lake, pond
Tigray0.13.01.013.810.320.70.550.52.07.18.620.414.518.52.126.9
Afar0.24.21.012.611.522.00.747.71.710.28.028.83.910.10.337.1
Amhara0.22.81.013.19.520.20.652.61.66.06.618.010.034.00.922.9
Oromia0.22.81.112.69.421.10.652.31.25.94.817.98.832.82.126.5
Somali0.45.21.516.511.520.20.644.20.73.35.526.54.618.61.239.6
Benshangul0.32.91.213.39.220.20.652.40.51.61.410.416.119.42.847.9
SNNPR0.12.00.911.98.821.50.554.30.72.52.414.312.336.70.730.3
Gambela0.67.31.115.812.417.80.344.80.82.42.513.912.436.80.630.2
Harari0.27.81.316.59.719.40.544.51.17.516.716.226.622.33.85.8
Dire Dawa0.66.21.516.211.518.30.445.31.28.210.953.014.012.03.60.7
Addis Ababa0.14.51.416.915.320.70.740.44.333.723.730.42.43.51.01.0
(Pearson chi = 185.8993; Pr = 0.000).
*composed by the author based on Welfare Monitoring Surveys (Welfare Monitoring Survey).

One of the most important reasons for the scarcity of water resources is their tropical climate, which is determined primarily by the desert, poorly forested areas and subtropics. Although the inhabitants of tropical lands do not experience a critical shortage of drinking water, the situation with the population of desert and semi-desert areas is completely different. The only important river that brings large amounts of moisture to these arid regions is the Nile. In addition, desert and semi-desert parts of the continent are also strongly affected by global warming. It causes an increase in air temperature, and also adversely affects the density and amount of precipitation. Mainly girls and women carry water in the family. To a large extent, the role of a water bearer leaves no room for education, which leads to a decrease in their ability to work better and lead a quality life in adulthood. Agriculture on the continent employs up to 82% of the working population. However, agricultural productivity is low, which increases overall malnutrition (Reach, 2015).

The lack of fresh and unpolluted drinking water creates the risk of health crisis in Ethiopia. About 60-80% of the Ethiopians suffer from the diseases caused by the limited access to the safe water and sanitation. 62 mln of the local people have to rely on the unsafe water for their daily needs.  Ethiopia is responsible for about 7.5% of the global water crisis. For example, during coronavirus pandemic which began at the end of 2019 from China and was called pandemic, 41% of the Ethiopian households do not have water for washing hands.

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